Instrucitonal Design.jpg

Image: N, A. (2016). Instructional Design [Image]. Retrieved

In this weeks lecture it focuses on introducing,instructional design and how it demonstrates how to “do something” or explain, “how something works to target audience. As well as the lecture will touch up on specific concerns related to designing for screen based interactive design.


In our daily life we encounter instructions. From working train ticketing machines to parking meters, it essential that we design clear instructions to help the user navigate better.

An example of a big market instructional design are IKEA furniture instructional designs, where they are illustrations that are basic to the point where it become useless and hard to understand.

Ikea Examples.png

Image: Cmielewski, L. (2016). Ikea Instructions [Screenshot].
Retrieved from

In creating instructional diagrams, designers look into the “cognitive load theory”. The research finds that we use working memory, which refers to how we manipulate information stored in our short-term memory and is one of our key executive functions. Although this working memory is limited due to the amount of things we have to do whilst trying to remember.

Cognitive Load.png

Image: Cmielewski, L. (2016). Cognitive Load [Screenshot].
Retrieved from

Above is an example of a the diagram where it critiques of a truck making manual where researchers states that this particular diagram where a researching has to hold a lot of information in working memory and then be able to marry together the text, supporting graphic and legend for that graphic.

Kinds of Interaction

Alberto Cairo has analysed the possibilities of an interactive experience and gathered them into four categories. These categories are different way of interacting with screen base designs.

  1.  Instruction  by clicking buttons


Image: Cmielewski, L. (2016). Interaction [Screenshot]. Retrieved
  1. Conversation   back and forth dialog


Image: Cmielewski, L. (2016). Conversation [Screenshot]. Retrieved
  1. Manipulation   drag and drop elements


Image: Cmielewski, L. (2016). Manipulation [Screenshot]. Retrieved
  1. Exploration   open, playful, game like


Image: Cmielewski, L. (2016). Exploration [Screenshot]. Retrieved


The challenges we face when using interactive design are:

  • Limited Screen Area
  • Limited Resolution
  • What may users want? How do you think they want the instructions (user preferences)
  • Disability on doing multiple things in interactive design is called “redundancy”. Redundancy in instructional design will offering users options of a text heavy-set of instructions and visual instructions.
  • Sense of control, where users tend to feel in control and powerful.


The opportunities we face when using interactive design are:

  • Moving from print to digital allows more Time
  • Layering with detail information

“ I think the most important aspect of the lecture would be the concept of carefully designing interactive design such as instructional design to enable users to clearly understand the steps they need to follow. Designers need to carefully layout text and visual images in order to not have a miscommunication. I think it is also important that designers need to consider users cognitive load and overwhelming users with vast information will not have successful outcome towards the interactive design. “

Therefore it essential that instructional design, especially found in interactive design should be conveyed in a thoughtful way. Were users can understand and the instructions can be communicated clearly and efficiently.


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